Dystonia Definition: Symptoms, Type, Causes and How To Treat It

Have you ever experienced muscle contractions so you can’t manage movement? If that happens, chances are you have dystonia. Find out why you can solve it by listening to dystonia definition: Symptoms, Type, Causes, and How To Treat It here.

Having other disorders in the body is not something that should be allowed. Dystonia is one of the disorders that is often experienced by some people, especially women. Dystonia doesn’t just attack certain muscles. However, it can also attack such as tongue, hands, and others.

Symptoms of Dystonia can be caused by many factors. You need to know how to cope as well as specific and medical treatments to deal with these symptoms of Dystonia.


What is Dystonia?

Definition of Dystonia

Dystonia is a movement disorder that occurs when the muscles of the body contract uncontrollably and cause slow repetitive movements, twisting movements, or abnormal postures. This condition sometimes causes pain. Individuals with dystonia often experience tremors or other neurological symptoms.

Usually, this disease is a lifelong problem. However, treatment can help eliminate symptoms. Contractions cause affected parts of the body to become involuntarily rotated, resulting in repetitive movements or abnormal postures. Dystonia can affect one muscle, one muscle group, or an entire body muscle.


Types of Dystonia

Dystonia can be distinguished by two things, namely from the affected part of the body and its pattern syndrome.

Types of Dystonia Based on Affected Body Parts

  • Dystonia focal: occurs in certain parts of the body
  • Multifocal dystonia: occurs in more than one specific unrelated part of the body
  • Segmental dystonia: occurs in adjacent parts of the body
  • Dystonia is common: occurs in most or all of the body
  • Hemidystonia: occurs in the arms and legs on the same side of the body


Types of Dystonia Based on Pattern Syndrome

  • Blepharospasm: dystonia that affects the eyes and begins with the eyes blinking uncontrollably to make the eyelids closed (either one or two eyes).
  • Cranial dystonia: dystonia that affects the muscle areas of the head, face, and neck.
  • Spasmodic dystonia: dystonia that affects the throat muscles.
  • Oromandibular dystonia: dystonia that causes spasms in the lip, jaw, and tongue muscles.
  • Torsion dystonia: dystonia that occurs greatly and affects the entire body with symptoms generally appearing in childhood that will develop more severe with age.
  • Paroxysmal dystonia: dystonia is episodic and occurs only at the time of the appearance of an attack.
  • Writer cramp: dystonia that only occurs when writing by affecting the muscles of the hand or forearm.
  • Cervical dystonia: dystonia affects the neck muscles and causes the head to spin, turn, pull backward and forwards by accident and generally occurs in middle-aged people.
  • Tardive dystonia: dystonia that occurs as a reaction to the drug by giving symptoms is temporary and can be treated through treatment.


What Causes Dystonia?

The cause of dystonia is still unknown, but disruption to basal ganglia is believed to have a link to this. Basal ganglia itself is a structure in the brain that serves to help control the movement of the body.

This disorder causes changes in nerve cell communication in some areas of the brain. Damage to basal ganglia can be caused by:

  • Brain trauma
  • Stroke
  • Tumor
  • Lack of oxygen
  • Infection Reactions
  • Poisoning caused by lead or carbon monoxide

In addition, idiopathic or primary dystonia is often inherited from the elderly. Some people as carriers may never get this disease. Symptoms can also vary greatly between family members.

The presence of disorders in the brain’s ability to process neurotransmitters is also thought to be related to the phenomenon of dystonia in a person.

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