Hidradenitis Suppurativa: (HS Skin Condition) Pathophysiology, Genetic, Rare Diseases, Symptoms, and causes

Have you ever had a small lump in the armpit or breast area, how often have you experienced it? know Hidradenitis Suppurativa: (HS Skin Condition) Pathophysiology, Genetic, Rare Diseases, Symptoms, and causes, in this article.

Many people suffer from suppurativa hidradenitis and feel disturbed by it, but don’t worry because you can overcome it by guidelines for treatment such as home remedies, surgery, and using medications. In addition, you will also know some pictures that show the disease.


What is Hidradenitis Suppurativa?

Hidradenitis is a condition that causes small, painful lumps under the skin. Sometimes, the lumps can be painful or filled with pus. This condition is commonly referred to acne inversa.

Hidradenitis suppurativa arises on skin that has hair and sweat glands, especially in areas that often experience friction, such as armpits, groin, thigh folding, buttocks, and breasts. This condition tends to occur after puberty and lasts for a long time (chronic).

However, lumps in the area can also vary in understanding and understanding Lymphadenopathy Related Conditions: Definition Medical Term in the previous article.

In severe cases, pus ducts can form under the skin, otherwise known as sinus pilonidal. The duct is connected with many lumps, so infection and inflammation can extend to other areas.


Causes of Hidradenitis Suppurativa

Hidradenitis suppurativa occurs due to blocked hair growth holes (hair follicles). It is not yet known the exact cause of the blockage. However, it is suspected that the blockage occurred as a result of the following:

  • Friction between skin and clothing
  • Distorted immune response to good bacteria
  • Inflammation that causes follicle walls to rupture, as well as damage to glands and apron ducts
  • Secondary bacterial infection, i.e. infection that occurs during or after the treatment of other infections
  • Certain medications

Keep in mind, suppurativa hidradenitis is not related to poor body hygiene. The condition is also not contagious. However, a person is more at risk of suppurativa hidradenitis if they have the following factors:


Generally, suppurativa hidradenitis is experienced by someone who is just past puberty, especially the age of 18 to 29 years.


In most cases, suppurativa hidradenitis occurs in a person who has a family member with a similar condition.


Women are more likely to develop suppurativa hidradenitis compared to men.


Obesity and smoking habits have been shown to increase the risk of suppurativa hidradenitis


Hidradenitis suppurativa is more susceptible to occur in a person who also suffers from certain diseases or conditions, including diabetes, psoriasis, metabolic syndrome, and Crohn’s disease.


Symptoms of Hidradenitis Suppurativa

Symptoms of hidradenitis suppurativa may vary from one sufferer to another. Symptoms can also occur over the years and worsen over time.

Suppurativa hidradenitis usually arises under the skin that has hair follicles and sweat glands and often experiences friction, such as:

  • armpit
  • Thigh folding
  • Inner thighs
  • Neck
  • Breast folds
  • Abdominal folds
  • Behind the ears
  • The area around the rectum, precisely in the cleavage

It can be painful, and may cause discomfort, when you feel lumps like acne or blisters. Lumps can disappear within 10–30 days, but can also get worse and become painful abscesses and release pus that smells when ruptured.

In more serious conditions, symptoms can be accompanied by the onset of black lumps that look like blackheads. Even if it has been treated and has disappeared, the lump can re-arise and leave permanent scarring or scarring.


When to see a doctor

It is very important to detect hidradenitis suppurativa as early as possible. Therefore, you are advised to check with your doctor if there is a lump under the skin that is accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • Pain
  • It doesn’t get much better in just a few short weeks.
  • Arises in more than one part of the body
  • Easily spread to surrounding parts of the body
  • Relapse after several weeks of treatment

If necessary, take regular control of your doctor to prevent the spread of infections and complications, especially if new symptoms arise.

Hidradenitis Suppurativa: (HS Skin Condition) Pathophysiology, Genetic, Rare Diseases, Symptoms and, causes

Diagnosis Hidradenitis Suppurativa

Diagnosis of hidradenitis suppurativa is done by looking at the symptoms experienced by the patient and the patient’s medical history. After that, the doctor will perform a physical examination, and determine the severity of hidradenitis suppurativa using the Hurley Stadium scale. Here’s an explanation:

Stadium 1

Abscesses appear in one or more areas but separate from each other without forming scarring and sinus tract.

Stadium 2

Abscesses appear in one or more areas and begin to form sinus ducts.

Stadium 3

Abscesses appear in some areas and are connected by sinus ducts.

If the lump is accompanied by pus, the doctor will take a sample to find out the type of bacteria that develop in the pus.

The doctor may also ask the patient to undergo a blood test to find out if the patient has diabetes, given that skin infections are common in diabetics. In addition, blood tests are also conducted to monitor the level of infection and inflammation that occurs.


Hidradenitis Suppurativa Treatment

Treatment of suppurativa hidradenitis aims to relieve symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment will be adjusted to the severity of each patient’s condition. The following are some methods of treatment that can be done:


Medicines that can be prescribed by a doctor to treat hidradenitis suppurativa include:


For mild suppurativitis hidradenitis, patients will usually only be given topical antibiotics (creams) to relieve infections, for example, clindamycin and gentamicin.


To relieve pain, the doctor may provide painkillers, such as aspirin and ibuprofen.


Retinoid medications commonly used to treat acne, such as isotretinoin, can also be prescribed by a dermatologist to support treatment.


Corticosteroid tablets, such as prednisone, can be administered by a doctor to reduce inflammation of the skin.

Immune system suppressant drugs

Immune system suppressant drugs, such as infliximab or adalimumab, are considered capable of treating hidradenitis suppurativa by neutralizing tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is a substance in the body that causes inflammation.



If necessary, suppurativa hidradenitis can be treated with surgery. The type of surgery performed by the doctor may vary by patient, depending on the severity, location, and area of the skin area experiencing the condition. The following are some operations that can be used to treat suppurativa hidradenitis:

  • Incision and drainage of abscesses, namely by slicing lumps and removing pus
  • Skin removal surgery, i.e. by removing the skin and tissue on the lump, either for one lump or lump that has formed sinuses
  • Skin grafting surgery, which is to remove the entire area of the skin that has hidradenitis suppurativa, then the wound will be closed with a skin graft procedure
  • Laser therapy, which is to use carbon dioxide lasers to remove lumps and wounds on the skin

Hidradenitis suppurativa is usually difficult to cure and can cause repeated recurrences for life. However, if treatment can be done as early as possible, especially with surgery, the potential for this condition to heal completely without causing a recurrence will be higher.

In very rare cases, suppurativa hidradenitis can also heal on its own without treatment.


Complications of Hidradenitis Suppurativa

Severe conditions of hidradenitis suppurativa or persistent relapse often lead to complications, such as:

  • Swelling around the affected area of the skin
  • Impaired renal function and anemia due to chronic infections
  • depression
  • Joint pain and arthritis
  • Skin cancer
  • Fistulas form in other parts of the body, such as the intestines and bladder


Prevention of Hidradenitis Suppurativa

Since the exact cause of hidradenitis suppurativa is unknown, there is no way yet can be done to prevent this condition from the occurrence. The best efforts that can be made are to prevent the symptoms from getting worse, including by:

  • Keeping your weight ideal and avoiding obesity
  • Stop smoking habit
  • Wearing loose clothing
  • Bathe with warm water
  • Clean the lump area with antibacterial soap
  • Does not shave the hair that grows on the lump and its surroundings
  • Avoiding hot and humid air

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