Antibiotics are a class of drugs used to treat and prevent bacterial infections. Know how long do antibiotics stay in your system, and will they burn your skin? do not get it wrong in use.
This drug works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria in the body so that existing diseases and symptoms can subside. Antibiotics cannot be used to cure diseases caused by viruses such as flu or colds.
What are antibiotic drugs?
Antibiotics are a remedy to get rid of bacterial infections. So, the use of this drug will not be effective to overcome diseases caused by viruses, such as flu or Covid-19. Bacteria themselves also consist of various types, such as aerobics, and anaerobic.
The rules of the use of antibiotics differ from most drugs. Because if used too often and in an inappropriate way, antibiotics can cause bacterial resistance or immunity to the drug.
If the bacteria in the body are resistant or immune to drugs, it will be more difficult to kill them and you will be more difficult to heal. Therefore, it is necessary to further recognize the type or type of antibiotics that exist and their use. That way, you are expected to no longer use this drug carelessly without a doctor’s prescription.
This type of difference makes not all drugs effective to eradicate them. Therefore, various types of antibiotics are made to meet these needs.
Various types of antibiotics, both broad and narrow spectrum, allow doctors to prescribe them as needed. Also, the existing options can be an alternative when a person is allergic to certain types of antibiotics.
Know the types of antibiotics and their benefits and side effects
Antibiotic drugs became available in several countries in the 1940 s. Before scientists discovered the drug, many people died from mild bacterial infectious diseases such as laryngitis. Most bacteria can live in the body and do not harm health.
Even some types that help the body’s performance. However, some bad bacteria can infect the body’s organs. Antibiotic drugs can benefit the body against certain types of bacterial infections and can save lives if used correctly.
Our immune system is ideally designed to fight bacteria before these germs multiply and cause symptoms of the disease. However, there are times when the amount of harmful bacteria is too much, so the immune system is overwhelmed. In this condition, the body needs antibiotics.
Common side effects of antibiotics
Antibiotics are available in the form of:
Tablets, capsules, or liquids you can drink:
Usually, this form of the drug is used to treat most types of mild to moderate infections.
Creams, lotions, sprays, and drops:
This form is often used to treat skin, eye, or ear infections.
This form can be administered directly into the blood or muscles. Usually, drugs in the form of injections are used to cope with more serious infections.
Types of antibiotics categorized by the chemical structure are as follows:
Penicillin or beta-lactam antibiotics are a class of antibiotics that damage bacterial cell walls while bacteria are in the process of reproduction.
Penicillin is a group of bactericidal agents consisting of penicillin G, penicillin V, ampicillin, ticarcillin, chloroxylenol, oxycoccal, amoxicillin, and nafcillin. This antibiotic is used to treat infections related to the skin, teeth, eyes, ears, respiratory tract, etc.
Some people may experience an allergy to penicillin with complaints of rash or fever due to hypersensitivity to antibiotics. Often penicillin is administered in combination with various other types of antibiotics.
Cephalosporins, like penicillin, work by disrupting the formation of bacterial cell walls during reproduction. However, these antibiotics are capable of treating a variety of bacterial infections that cannot be treated with penicillin, such as meningitis, gonorrhea, etc.
In cases where people are sensitive to penicillin, cephalosporins can be given as an alternative. However, in most cases, when a person is allergic to penicillin, then most likely he will be allergic to cephalosporins as well.
Side effects of this antibiotic are rash, diarrhea, abdominal spasms, and fever.
This type of antibiotic inhibits the formation of bacterial proteins. Because it is effective in inhibiting the production of bacterial proteins, aminoglycosides are given among others to treat typhus and pneumonia.
Although effective in treating infection-causing bacteria, there is a risk that bacteria are increasingly resistant to these antibiotics. Aminoglycosides are also administered in combination with penicillin or cephalosporins.
Aminoglycosides effectively control and treat bacterial infections, but potentially weaken kidney and liver function.
Just like before, these antibiotics interfere with the formation of bacterial proteins. Macrolide prevents the biosynthesis of bacterial proteins and is usually given to treat patients who are highly sensitive to penicillin.
Macrolide has a wider spectrum compared to penicillin and is used to treat respiratory tract infections, gastric tract infections, etc.
Some side effects of macrolide are digestive discomfort, nausea, and diarrhea.
Also, pregnant and lactating women should not consume macrolides.
The drug effectively treats kidney infections but unfortunately harms the kidneys. To prevent the formation of medicinal crystals, the patient should drink a large amount of water. One of the most commonly used sulfa drugs is Gantrisin.
Fluoroquinolones are the only class of antibiotics that directly stops bacterial synthesis. Since it can be absorbed very well by the body, fluoroquinolones can be administered orally.
This antibiotic is considered relatively safe and is widely used to treat urinary and respiratory tract infections. However, fluoroquinolones are thought to affect bone growth. That is because the drug is not recommended for pregnant women or children.
Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, etc.
Tetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used to treat various infections such as middle ear infections, respiratory tract, urinary tract, etc. Patients with liver problems should be careful when taking tetracycline as it can exacerbate the problem.
Polypeptides are considered toxic enough that they are mainly used on the surface of the skin only. When injected into the skin, polypeptides can cause side effects such as kidney and nerve damage.
Why should antibiotics be spent?
The benefits of antibiotic drugs are potent against bacteria when used in the right way. Doctors often recommend how to use antibiotics by taking this drug according to the dosage until it runs out.
The reasons why antibiotics should be spent are related to the effectiveness of the drug. If antibiotic treatment stops in the middle of the road, the infection may recur.
Also, if antibiotics are not spent, it could increase the risk of bacteria being immune to future treatment. As a result, bacteria can continue to live and multiply in the body by carrying immunity from antibiotic drugs. This condition is known as antibiotic resistance.
Therefore, make sure that you take all the antibiotics prescribed by the doctor until they run out, even after the symptoms of the disease subside. To be effective, the use of antibiotics also needs to follow the instructions on how to take the drug.
Some types of antibiotics need to be taken in the condition that the stomach is not filled with food, but there are also types of drugs that are consumed a few hours after eating.
Doctors usually also recommend dietary restrictions during taking certain antibiotics. Antibiotic drugs sometimes trigger side effects and allergies for some people. Immediately notify doctors and pharmacists if they experience this condition.
People with liver, kidney, pregnant women and nursing mothers also need to be careful taking antibiotics. Consult a doctor regarding the selection of the safest type of drug.
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What happens when you use too many antibiotics?
Excessive use of antibiotics can trigger bacterial immunity to antibiotics. Why? Because every time a person takes antibiotics, sensitive bacteria can be killed, while antibiotic-resistant germs are instead allowed to grow and multiply. Repeated and improper use of antibiotics is the main cause of increased bacterial immunity to the drug.
Although antibiotics should be used to treat bacterial infections, they are not effective against viral infections. The fairly frequent use of antibiotics triggers the spread of antibiotic resistance. The intelligent use of antibiotics is the main key to controlling the spread of resistance.
How long will it take if using penicillin antibiotics to leave your system?
Penicillin will leave the system after your last dose in about 7.7 hours.
Penicillin has an elimination half-life of about 1.4 hours or less.
It takes about 5.5 x half-time elimination for the drug to be cleaned from your body which is 5.5 x 1.4 hours = 7.7 hours for penicillin.
If combining antibiotics and alcohol is it safe?
Alcohol and drugs can be a dangerous mixture. Doctors advise avoiding alcohol when taking several medications. The biggest concern is that consuming alcohol with the drug can increase the risk of unsafe side effects.
How can bacteria be immune to antibiotics?
Bacteria can be immune to antibiotics in several ways. Some bacteria can neutralize antibiotics by making them harmless, some can pump antibiotics back out before harming bacteria.
Some bacteria also exist that can change the structure of the outside, so antibiotics have no way to touch the bacteria.
After being exposed to antibiotics, sometimes one of the bacteria can survive because it finds a way to fight the antibiotic. If one of the bacteria becomes resistant to antibiotics, then the bacteria can multiply and replace all the bacteria killed. Thus, with selective antibiotic exposure, bacteria can survive and are immune to antibiotic drugs due to mutations of genetic material.
When do we not need to take antibiotics?
Antibiotics are not necessary to deal with viral infections, such as colds, flu, or mononucleosis. If you take antibiotics when you don’t need them, then you can increase your risk of getting diseases caused by immune bacteria.
How to take antibiotics correctly and safely
It is important to understand that, although antibiotics are a very useful drug, however, the drug is designed only for bacterial infections. The things need to do to prevent bacterial immunity are:
- Talk to the doctor about antibiotic resistance.
- Ask if antibiotics are beneficial for your disease.
- Ask what you can do to make the disease faster.
- Do not use antibiotics for illnesses caused by viral infections, such as colds or flu.
- Do not leave some antibiotics prescribed for the next upcoming disease.
- Taking antibiotics is exactly what the doctor advises.
- Don’t skip the dosage. Although his condition has improved, if the antibiotics are stopped, some bacteria can survive and infect again.
- Do not take antibiotics prescribed to others, as the drug may not be suitable for your illness. If you take the wrong medicine it can give the bacteria a chance to reproduce.
- If your doctor claims that your illness is not due to a bacterial infection, then do not force the doctor to prescribe antibiotics.