Macrosomia: Complications, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Causes and Treatment

The fetal in a mother’s womb will gradually increase in size. Generally, babies born weigh above 2.5 kg and under 4 kg. If the baby born is outside that standard, then there is a problem that occurs, namely macrosomia. Find out more about Macrosomia: Complications, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Causes, and Treatment.


What is Macrosomia?

Macrosomia is a term used to describe babies born with larger sizes. Babies of normal weight usually weigh 2.5 to 4.0 kg at the time of delivery. However, babies weighing more than 4 kg will experience a condition called macrosomia.

Macrosomia will result in normal childbirth problems and open the possibility for cesarean delivery. This disease will also bring health problems for babies in the future, such as obesity, diabetes, to metabolic syndrome.

As with other diseases, macrosomia can be prevented. But this condition is sometimes difficult to predict, new doctors will be able to diagnose the presence of macrosomia after childbirth through the weight of the baby.

So to prevent the possibility of macrosomia, it is recommended to routinely conduct checks to monitor weight during pregnancy. Maintaining a diet, light and regular exercise is a simple step to compensate for efforts to avoid macrosomia.


Facts About Macrosomia

Here are some facts about Macrosomia:

Macrosomia That Is Baby Weight More Than 4 kg

The characteristics of newborns of normal weight according to the view of the medics are babies who weigh 2.5 – 4 kg. And there is a general agreement that if a newborn weighs more than 4 kg, then the baby is categorized as having macrosomia.


Macrosomia Is a Difficult Condition to Predict

Detecting macrosomia in the fetus in the womb is quite difficult and the results are sometimes less accurate. Doctors generally prefer to ask about pregnancy history and medications that have been taken by the mother during pregnancy.


Macrosomia Can Lead to Bad Complications for Infants and Mothers

Mothers can be very difficult during childbirth, such as bleeding, vaginal injuries, and so on. Babies born also may have birth defects such as shoulder dystocia that causes collarbone fractures, arm fractures to diabetic nerve injuries, metabolic syndrome, and so on.

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Genetic Factors Can Affect Macrosomia

Although rare, genetic factors are thought to influence the occurrence of macrosomia. This is because the faster growth of the baby in birth is sometimes influenced by genetic factors obtained from both father and mother.


Babies born to diabetic mothers have a 40% chance of developing macrosomia

Mothers with diabetes have a chance (10-40 %) to give birth to baby macrosomia. This is because babies (neonatal) are more likely to produce higher fat intake from their mothers than mothers who do not have diabetes.


Pregnant Boy

Mothers who often conceive boys have the possibility of having macrosomia. This is because the bodyweight of a baby boy tends to be heavier than that of a female


Causes of macrosomia

Macrosomia or the condition that causes an unborn baby to become obese in the womb is caused by many things. Here are some of the triggers that most commonly cause macrosomia.

  • Have a fairly high blood sugar. Some women who cannot control sweet foods or simple carbohydrates in their bodies are prone to gestational diabetes.
  • Being obese before pregnancy occurs.
  • A significant weight gain was experienced during pregnancy.Weight gain during pregnancy is natural, but there are limits as well. The doctor will usually take measurements of each control to find out if the weight is ideal or not.
  • Been pregnant more than once. If you get pregnant only once, the chances of macrosomia will be smaller.
  • Pregnant baby with the male gender. In general, the male fetus will be larger than the female.
  • Have a taste of Hispanic or white people. Asians rarely experience this because their body shape tends to be smaller. ⦁ Pregnancy occurs longer and exceeds the predetermined birth time.
  • Have a history of family e.g. mother or grandmother who gave birth to a larger baby. Most likely when pregnant will also experience the same thing.
  • Pregnancy occurs at the age of over 35 years. Women should get pregnant before that age so as not to be exposed to various side effects.


Risk Factors Causing Macrosomia

In addition to some of the causes mentioned above, the conditions that are believed to contribute to worsening macrosomia in infants are as follows:

Pregnant Baby Boy

Several factors cause infant macrosomia and one of them is the male fetus. This is because the weight of the male fetus tends to be larger than that of females.

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Although rare, pregnant women who have hypertension or high blood pressure have the possibility of giving birth to macrosomic babies.

Irregular Diet

An irregular diet followed by a lack of activity during pregnancy creates a significant possibility of weight gain for the mother. Weight gain can lead to the possibility of calorie buildup that can turn into fat so that over time affects the growth of the baby.

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Macrosomia: Complications, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Causes and Treatment

Signs of macrosomia

Macrosomia has several visible or perceived signs. Doctors are usually wary of this condition so that complications do not occur.

  • The size of the stomach is getting bigger than expected. Doctors usually estimate how long the fetus is. If growth is too large, it could be a sign of macrosomia.
  • Weight gain is quite significant. The doctor will immediately advise pregnant women not to eat some foods that can increase their weight significantly enough.
  • Know the size of the baby by ultrasound. By looking directly, the doctor will know if the size is appropriate for age or indeed too large from the beginning.
  • Many have amniotic fluid in the uterus, especially those that envelop the baby. This fluid is related to the size of the baby, if the size is large, it means that the size of the baby is large.


When to see a doctor?

It is recommended to regularly check with your doctor if you feel unexpected changes in weight during pregnancy, or have some conditions such as diabetes, obesity, and having given birth to a macrosomia baby.


How to prevent macrosomia

Can macrosomia be prevented early so that pregnant women do not have to worry during pregnancy and childbirth? Macrosomia can be prevented by doing some of the following.

  • Restricts food from entering the body. Limiting does not mean eating only a small amount of food. Nutritional needs must still be met, but should not be overstated.
  • Always do a weight check once a week. The doctor will usually provide recommendations for reasonable weight gain. If the weight gain is exceeded, improve the diet.
  • Control foods that are too sweet or contain high complex carbohydrates. If you can’t control it, the chances of gestational diabetes will be great.
  • Routinely check blood sugar on the body. This check is done to lower the risk of gestational diabetes.
  • Create a suitable diet. It’s a good idea to use a nutritionist to regulate what you can and shouldn’t eat, don’t set everything yourself because it can trigger malnutrition.
  • Initial preparation can be done long before you get pregnant. For example, ask for recommendations from a doctor or nutritionist related to how to prevent macrosomia.
  • Doing light exercise is highly recommended. By doing the exercise the body likely has a low-calorie surplus. Most will be burned during sports.
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Fetal macrosomia delivery

Childbirth with a large enough baby condition in the fetus is very dangerous. Usually, childbirth is carried out in some of the ways below.

  • Normal childbirth. The doctor will determine whether the size of the pelvis can be used for a birth path or not. In addition, the chances of damage to the vagina will be large or not. If there is a possibility of major damage, a Caesarean section must be performed.
  • Cesarean section. Used for childbirth of babies that have a size of about 4 kg or more. Some fetuses are up to 5 kg in weight.
  • Early delivery. It is done to avoid the growth of the fetus getting bigger and causing many complications.


Complications due to macrosomia

Complications due to macrosomia consist of difficulty of the fetus at birth to injuries that occur in the mother and fetus. Babies also have the possibility of hypoglycemia from birth. Obesity since childhood can also occur, respiratory disorders, until the most dangerous is the death of the baby.

Pregnant women can also experience bleeding, organ damage, postnatal trauma, and death. Given the risks on both sides are very risky, it is worth paying more attention to the health problems of pregnant women. Nutrients and foods may be consumed, but remain in good control so as not to occur obesity in the baby since in the womb.

Macrosomia is a very dangerous condition and can occur in many pregnant women. The easiest way to avoid the risk or complications of a baby being too large is to take precautions early, even since the fetus has just grown and implanted in the uterus.

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