Oh Goodness!! Apparently This is The Cause of Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia, do you often experience dizziness, pale skin, rapidly tired body, and fever? identify the symptoms in this article.
What is Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia?
Hemolytic anemia is a disease of less blood due to the destruction of red blood cells faster than their formation. This disease needs to be treated so that there are no complications in the heart, such as heart rhythm disorders or heart failure.
Hemolytic anemia can be experienced from birth because it is passed down from the elderly or develops after birth. Hemolytic anemia that is not lowered can be triggered by disease, exposure to chemicals, or side effects of drugs.
What is the difference between Aplastic Anemia and Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia?
Aplastic anemia is a blood disorder that occurs when the spinal cord stops producing red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets also known as blood chips, and plays an important role in the process of blood clotting.
Blood itself has its functions in the human body. Red blood cells serve to carry oxygen throughout the body, white blood cells serve to fight infections, while platelets serve to prevent bleeding.
Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia
Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia is a condition when red blood cells are destroyed faster than their formation. This condition can be triggered by two things, namely:
- Intrinsic factor, namely hemolytic anemia caused by abnormal red blood cells.
- Extrinsic factor, namely hemolytic anemia caused by the immune system response that stimulates the spleen to destroy red blood cells.
Why does anemia cause heart problems?
Without sufficient iron levels, the body cannot produce enough hemoglobin to deliver oxygen to the body’s tissues. That’s why anemia sufferers will feel tired and limp.
The condition also aggravates the work of the heart. If the body does not produce enough hemoglobin, the automatic supply of oxygen to the heart is also reduced. As a result, the heart has to work harder to compensate for the lack of oxygen in the blood.
If the condition is left untreatable, the heart may eventually break down, increasing the risk of anemia for heart diseases such as heart enlargement or heart failure. Anemia can cause a rapid or irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)
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How much hemoglobin indicates anemia?
Hemoglobin or Hb is a protein located in red blood cells. It is this protein that makes the blood red. At normal levels, hemoglobin has many functions for the body. Therefore, normal levels of hemoglobin need to always be maintained.
Normal hemoglobin levels in adult women range from 12–15 g/dL, while hemoglobin levels in adult men range from 13–17 g/dL.
Low hemoglobin levels indicate the body is anemic. This condition can be caused by several things, such as blood loss, impaired kidney and bone marrow function, radiation exposure, or lack of nutrients such as iron, folate, and vitamin B12.
Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia symptoms
Symptoms of hemolytic anemia can be mild at the beginning of the disease, then worsen slowly or suddenly. Symptoms vary with each sufferer, including:
- Pale skin.
- The body tired quickly.
- Urine is dark.
- The skin and white parts of the eyes turn yellow (ailing yellow).
- The stomach feels uncomfortable due to the spleen organs and enlarged liver.
- Heart palpitations.
Oh Goodness!! Apparently This is The Cause Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia
Hemolytic anemia can be passed down from the elderly or develop after birth. Some of the causes of hemolytic anemia triggered by hereditary factors are:
- Sickle cell anemia
- Deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme
- Deficiency of pyruvate kinase enzyme
While conditions beyond hereditary factors that can cause hemolytic anemia include:
- Infectious diseases, such as typhus, hepatitis, Epstein-Barr virus infection, or certain types of coli bacterial infections.
- Autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and ulcerative colitis.
- Side effects of drugs, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (OAINS), paracetamol, dapsone, levodopa, methyldopa, rifampicin, as well as several types of antibiotics, such as levofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, penicillin, and cephalosporins.
- Cancer, especially blood cancer.
- Rattlesnake bites.
- Arsenic poisoning or lead poisoning.
- Receive blood transfusions from people of different blood types.
- The reaction of the body due to organ transplant surgery.
Diagnosis of Hemolytic Anemia
The doctor will ask the patient’s symptoms, his or her medical history, and whether any of the patient’s family suffers from anemia. After that, the doctor will check if the patient’s skin is pale or yellowing, as well as fingering and pressing on the patient’s stomach to check for enlargement of the liver or spleen organs.
If the patient is suspected of suffering from hemolytic anemia, the doctor will perform the following examination:
- Complete blood count, to calculate the number of blood cells in the body.
- Examination of bilirubin, which is a residual compound of the process of destruction of red blood cells, resulting in a yellow disease.
- Coombs test, to see if antibodies might attack red blood cells.
- Aspiration of the bone marrow, to see the shape and level of maturity of red blood cells directly from the ‘blood factory’.
What treatment does it do if we are exposed to Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia?
Treatment of hemolytic anemia depends on the cause, severity, age, and health condition of the patient, as well as the patient’s response to the drug. Some methods of treatment that can be done by doctors include:
- Folic acid supplements and iron supplements.
- Immunosuppressant drugs suppress the immune system so that red blood cells are not easily destroyed
- Injectable immunoglobulin (IVIG), to strengthen the patient’s immunity.
- Blood transfusion, to increase the number of red blood cells (Hb) is low in the patient’s body.
In case of severe hemolytic anemia, the doctor will perform a splenectomy or spleen removal surgery. This procedure is usually performed when the patient does not respond to the above methods of treatment.
Complications of Hemolytic Anemia
Hemolytic anemia that is not treated properly can trigger dangerous complications, among others:
- Heart rhythm disorders
- Heart muscle disorders (cardiomyopathy)
- Heart failure
Prevention of Hemolytic Anemia
Prevention of hemolytic anemia depends on the cause. In patients with hemolytic anemia caused by side effects of drugs, its prevention can be done by avoiding the drugs that trigger this disease.
Hemolytic anemia can also be done by preventing infection, namely by:
- Avoid direct contact with the infected person.
- Stay away from crowds if possible.
- Wash your hands and brush your teeth regularly.
- Avoid the consumption of raw or half-cooked foods.
- Undergoing flu vaccinations every year.
Hemolytic anemia caused by hereditary factors can not be prevented. But if you or your family suffer from hemolytic anemia due to hereditary factors, you can undergo a genetic consultation to find out how likely the disease is to be passed on to your child.