Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: What is Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH)? Symptoms, Diagnosis and Causes

Did you know subarachnoid hemorrhage is very life-threatening to us? When subarachnoid hemorrhage don’t show on scans it even gives rise to vomiting and other side effects, if not treated quickly through traumatic or nontraumatic treatment It will give you more severe long term effects. Know Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: What is Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH)? Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Causes.


What is Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH)?

Subarachnoid bleeding (SAH) is a type of stroke that occurs due to bleeding in the subarachnoid chamber, which is in the protective layer of the brain or meninges, due to rupture or damage to blood vessels in the meninges membrane. The meninges membrane consists of three layers of tissue, namely the durometer layer, the arachnoid layer, and the parameter layer.

Bleeding in this SAH area can result in coma, paralysis or paralysis, and even death. This bleeding usually occurs quickly and is often caused by head trauma.

The lifesaving of SAH sufferers depends on the speed of medical action. Although it is a fatal event, SAH cases are rare.


How much is the subarachnoid hemorrhage survival rate?

Approximately 25% of patients die within 24 hours, with or without medical attention. Inpatients have an average mortality rate of 40% in the first month. About half of the affected individuals died within the first 6 months. Re-bleeding, the main complication, brings a mortality rate of 51-80%.


Symptoms of Subarachnoid Bleeding

Subarachnoid bleeding can occur in the absence of certain symptoms felt by sufferers. However, in some cases, symptoms will appear after strenuous physical activity. The main symptom felt by sufferers is severe headaches that appear suddenly and have never been felt before. Other symptoms include:

  • My neck feels stiff.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Pain in the shoulder area.
  • Blurred, double vision, or sensitivity to light.
  • Experiencing stroke symptoms, such as talking Pelo and paralyzing one side of the limb.
  • Loss of consciousness.
  • Stiff.
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Symptoms of subarachnoid bleeding can appear suddenly and cause the sufferer to rapidly decrease consciousness. This is an emergency and should receive immediate medical treatment. If you find someone experiencing the symptoms of subarachnoid bleeding as above, seek the help of a doctor or medical officer immediately.


Causes of Subarachnoid Bleeding

The causes of subarachnoid bleeding can be divided into two, namely traumatic and nontraumatic.

Traumatic subarachnoid

Traumatic subarachnoid bleeding occurs due to severe head injuries, such as a traffic accident, falling, or being hit by an object on the head. This severe injury can cause blood vessels in the meninges membrane to rupture and cause subarachnoid bleeding. Subarachnoid bleeding can occur without being preceded by injury and appears suddenly.


Nontraumatic subarachnoid

The cause of this nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage most often is rupture of the brain aneurysm. An aneurysm in the blood vessels of the brain causes swelling and thinning of the walls of blood vessels.

Blood vessels depleted by an aneurysm can rupture and cause bleeding, as well as form blood clots in the subarachnoid chamber of the meninges membrane.

Non-traumatic subarachnoid bleeding can also occur due to vascular abnormalities (venous artery malformations), consumption of blood-thinning drugs, and blood clotting disorders.

A person can more easily experience subarachnoid bleeding if he has factors, such as:

  • Smoking habit.
  • Hypertension.
  • Alcohol addiction.
  • History of subarachnoid bleeding in the family.
  • Polycystic kidney disease, When the kidneys are impaired, various complications ranging from waste hoarding and toxins. know the Foods For a Kidney Disease Diet to prevent it.
  • Liver disease.
  • Brain tumors, both malignant and benign, that affect blood vessels.
  • Infection of the brain (encephalitis).
  • Fibromuscular dysplasia, a rare condition that causes narrowing of blood vessels.
  • Moyamoya disease, a rare condition that causes blockages in blood vessels in the brain.
  • Inflammation of the blood vessels (vasculitis).
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Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: What is Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH)? Symptoms, Diagnosis and Causes

Diagnosis of Subarachnoid Bleeding

To ensure the diagnosis of subarachnoid bleeding, the doctor will perform several examinations, such as:

Physical examination

Subarachnoid bleeding is often detected when performing physical examinations. The presence of stiffness in the neck, visual impairment, and the occurrence of very severe and sudden headaches, can be a sign of subarachnoid bleeding.

Additional examination is required to determine the severity of subarachnoid bleeding that occurs.


CT scan

CT scan is an imaging examination that can detect bleeding in the brain. When needed, the doctor can inject a contrast dye to see the patient’s blood vessels in better detail. This examination is known as a CT angiogram.



This imaging test can also detect brain hemorrhaging. The doctor can also perform an MR angiogram examination by injecting a contrast dye into the blood vessels to see the arteries and veins more clearly.


Cerebral Angiography

Cerebral angiography uses a catheter (thin long hose) inserted into the arterial blood vessels in the legs. The catheter is directed until it reaches the blood vessels of the brain, then a contrast dye is injected into the blood vessels of the brain to be visible under the X-Ray examination.

This examination is used to help the doctor obtain a more detailed picture and identify the cause of subarachnoid bleeding, or if other examinations are unclear.

As many as 22% of cases of subarachnoid aneurysm bleeding cannot be diagnosed at the initial examination. If the initial examination does not show bleeding, the doctor will perform additional tests in the form of:

Lumbar puncture

On this examination, the doctor will take cerebrospinal fluid and examine it further to see the presence of blood that can indicate the occurrence of subarachnoid bleeding.

Repeated imaging

This imaging test can be repeated several days after the initial examination.


How to treat subarachnoid bleeding

Ways of treating subarachnoid bleeding can include measures to save a patient’s life, relieve symptoms, repair ruptured blood vessels, and prevent complications. Treatment of the condition concentrates on stabilizing the individual’s ailment and is completed depending on the cause of bleeding in addition to the level of brain damage which happens. Here’s the explanation:

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Treatment of a ruptured brain aneurysm

If the bleeding is caused by a ruptured brain aneurysm, the doctor will suggest the following treatment efforts:


The physician will make an incision at the liner of the skull and also will put a metal clip at the end of the aneurysm to prevent the blood circulation.

Endovascular embolization

The physician will insert a catheter from the arterial blood vessels in the gut steered towards the brain. The stretch shaped from platinum is inserted through the catheter until it reaches the aneurysm. This stretch fills the aneurysm and will reduce blood flow to the aneurysm bag causing blood to clot.


Other endovascular techniques

The certain aneurysm can be treated with other endovascular techniques, such as using stents or balloons that divert blood flow.


Comma handling

If subarachnoid bleeding causes coma, the treatment uses life support tools such as ventilators (breathing apparatus), airway protection, and hose placement to remove fluid from the brain so that pressure on the brain is reduced.



Medications can be given to regulate blood pressure and prevent narrowing of arterial blood vessels (nimodipine). In addition, painkillers can relieve symptoms of severe headaches.


Complications of Subarachnoid Bleeding

Untreated subarachnoid bleeding can trigger the development of complications.

Main complications:

  • Narrowing of the blood vessels of the brain resulting in a reduced blood supply to the brain that can cause damage to the brain. The symptoms resemble a stroke, up to a coma.
  • Recurrent bleeding. This condition should be treated immediately as it can be at risk of permanent damage or even death.
  • Hydrocephalus, which is the accumulation of liquids


Long-term complications:

  • Epilepsy.
  • Mood swings, such as depression.
  • Impairment of cognitive functions of the brain, such as concentration, memory, and planning.

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