Leukemia or blood cancer is a type of liquid cancer. Which makes the production of white blood cells redundant from inside the body. The blood in our body has three blood cells which perform their individual functions. So know about Symptoms of Leukemia in Women: Needs To Know, and What Is the Life Expectancy of a Person With Leukemia? And Can it Be Cured?
White blood cells help the body fight infections, red blood cells carry oxygen, and platelets help blood clotting. However, when the body suffers from leukemia, the number of white blood cells exceeds the body’s needs or capacity. However, when the number of white blood cells is excessive due to blood cancer, the performance of the body’s organs is disrupted. According to Medical News Today, leukemia usually affects children under 15 years of age.
Can leukemia be contagious?
Leukemia is not an infectious disease because most cases are passed down by parents to children (genetic factors). Other causes include a history of chemotherapy, exposure to certain chemicals, Down syndrome, and smoking habits
Who can get leukemia?
Leuchemical disease or rather a leukemia is a blood cancer caused by the body producing too many abnormal white blood cells. Leukemia can occur in adults and children.
According to Medical News Today, leukemia usually affects children under 15 years of age. However, leukemia in adults is common in adults aged 50-70 years. This type of disease is often difficult to detect because the symptoms resemble the symptoms of other diseases. Early detection needs to be done so that leukemia can be treated quickly.
White blood cells are part of the immune system produced in the bone marrow. When bone marrow function is disrupted, the resulting white blood cells will change and no longer function effectively.
What are the symptoms of leukemia in women?
At first, leukemia often does not cause signs. New symptoms appear when cancer cells are getting more and more and start attacking the body’s cells. Symptoms also vary depending on the type of leukemia suffered. General characteristics of people with leukemia are:
- Fever and chills
- Weight loss drastically
- Symptoms of anemia
- Red spots on the skin
- Body bruises easily
- Excessive lightening especially at night
- Prone to infection
- Lumps appear in the neck due to swelling of the lymph nodes
- The stomach feels uncomfortable due to liver organs and a swollen spleen
- The body feels tired and tiredness does not disappear even though it has rested.
More severe symptoms can be experienced by patients if cancer cells clog the blood vessels of certain organs. Symptoms that may appear include:
- Severe headaches
- Nausea and vomiting
- Muscles lose control
- Bone pain
- Get to know different types of leukemia.
Leukemia can be chronic and acute. In chronic leukemia, cancer cells develop slowly and the initial symptoms are usually very mild. While in acute leukemia, the development of cancer cells occurs very quickly and the symptoms that appear can worsen in a short period. Acute leukemia is more dangerous than chronic leukemia.
Dependent on the type of white blood cells included, leukemia is split into four Chief types, specifically:
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia occurs when the bone marrow produces too many white blood cells of immature lymphocytes or lymphoblasts.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or chronic lymphocytic leukemia occurs when the bone marrow produces too many abnormal lymphocytes and slowly causes cancer.
Acute myeloblastic leukemia
Acute myeloblastic leukemia or acute myeloblastic leukemia occurs when the bone marrow produces too many immature myeloid cells or myeloblasts.
Chronic myelocytic leukemia
Chronic myelocytic leukemia or chronic myelocytic leukemia occurs when the bone marrow is unable to produce mature myeloid cells.
In addition to the four types of leukemia above, there are several other rare types of leukemia, including:
- Hair cell leukemia
- Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia
- Acute promyelocytic leukemia
- Large granular lymphocytic leukemia
- Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, a type of myelomonocytic leukemia that attacks children under the age of 6 years.
What are the features of the symptoms of leukemia in women rash?
Rash signs of leukemia
Leukemia can cause small blood vessels called capillaries to rupture under the skin. When leukemia develops to a certain point, abnormal doubling of blood cells can interfere with platelet production.
As a result, there may not be enough platelets to block the ruptured capillaries. Blood also leaked on the skin.
This leak gives rise to small red, purple or brown spots called petechiae on the skin. These small spots of petechiae give the appearance of rashes. For example, a 4-year-old girl who was previously healthy was then reported to have a sudden rash on her cheek.
The rash does not itch. Over the next week, her rash spread from cheek to arm, back, thighs and buttocks. The patient has no other symptoms.
One week later, the rash has not healed. After a skin biopsy two weeks after the onset of the rash, the results of the biopsy showed blood cells due to leukemia attacks.
Induction therapy uses the COG protocol AALL 0434, which includes intrathecal methotrexate, intrathecal cytarabine, vincristine, prednisone, pegasparaginase, and daunorubicin. At the end of induction, the patient’s bone marrow contains 26% blood cancer cells.
What about the symptoms of leukemia in women over 50,70,80?
Types of blood cancer that often attack the elderly
In general, blood cancer is divided into 3 types, namely let chemical, myeloma, and lymphoma. Blood cancers that affect old age are myeloma and lymphoma. However, it does not close the possibility of old age also have let chemical (white blood cell cancer).
High numbers of abnormal white blood cells are unable to fight infection and can damage the ability of the bone marrow to produce red blood cells and platelets. Lymphoma blood cancer is a type of blood cancer that affects lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are white blood cells that form part of the immune system and help fight infection. The body will have 2 main types of lymphocytes, namely B cells and T cells.
In lymphoma, either B or T lymphocytes undergo benign changes, and can therefore divide and multiply uncontrollably. This abnormal lymphocyte does not work as it should and surrounds a healthy cell.
Lymphoma affects the normal functioning of the immune system and reduces the body’s resistance to harmful factors from the outside. This type of cancer also affects the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, bone marrow, and other parts of the body.
There are two main types of lymphoma cancer, Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL), common in young adults between the ages of 15 and 30, and adults over the age of 50. Then, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) is common in the elderly.
What are the causes of Leukemia?
Leukemia is caused by abnormalities of white blood cells in the body and their growth cannot be controlled. It is not yet known the exact cause of the changes, but some of the following factors are thought to increase the risk of developing leukemia. The risk factors in question include:
- Have a smoking habit
- Suffers from genetic disorders, such as Down Syndrome
- Suffers from blood disorders, such as myelodysplasia syndrome
- Have family members who have had leukemia
- Work in an environment exposed to chemicals, such as benzene
- Have undergone cancer treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy
When should you go to the doctor?
See a doctor immediately if symptoms appear, such as recurrent and prolonged fever or nosebleeds. Symptoms of leukemia often resemble the symptoms of other infectious diseases, such as the flu. Examinations need to be carried out to early detect the possibility of cancer and prevent the development of the disease.
If you are an active smoker and have difficulty stopping smoking, then consult a doctor regarding the steps you can take to quit smoking. Smoking is one of the factors that can increase the risk of leukemia.
Treatment of leukemia takes a long time. Regularly consult a doctor during treatment, even until the completion of treatment. This is done so that the development of the disease is always monitored by the doctor.
Can Leukemia Sufferers Lead Normal Live?
The success of the treatment is influenced by the type of leukemia, the age at which it is diagnosed, and the degree of the disease at the earliest known. The earlier leukemia is detected, the more optimal the success rate of treatment performed.
The doctor will ask about the symptoms experienced by the sufferer and perform a physical examination. Through a physical examination, the doctor can detect signs of leukemia that appear, such as bruises on the skin, pale skin due to anemia, as well as swelling of the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen.
However, the diagnosis of leukemia can not be ascertained only by physical examination. Therefore, the doctor will conduct a follow-up examination to confirm the diagnosis and type of leukemia experienced by the sufferer. The types of checks performed include:
Perform a blood test
A complete blood count test is performed to determine the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. The doctor may suspect the patient has leukemia if the number of red blood cells or platelets is low and the blood cell shape is abnormal.
And for that, I also suggest knowing about What Is WBC In Blood Test? What Do You Need To Pay Attention To When The Number Of WBC Is High? this is a test that is done on white blood cell abnormalities that occur when the number is too much or too little in our body.
Bone marrow aspiration
The bone marrow aspiration procedure is performed through sampling spinal cord tissue from the hip bone using long, thin needles. These samples are then examined in a laboratory to detect cancer cells.
In addition to the above diagnostic tests, the doctor will also conduct another follow-up examination to check for organ abnormalities due to leukemia. The following types of tests that can be done are:
- Scan tests, such as ultrasound, CT scan, and MRI
- Lumbar puncture
- Liver function test
- Biopsy of the spleen.
Is There a Life Expectancy Of Someone With Leukemia? And how is the treatment?
Of course, there is, because the hematologist oncology (blood and cancer specialist) will determine the type of treatment performed based on the type of leukemia and the patient’s overall condition. Here are some treatment methods to treat leukemia:
- Chemotherapy, which is a method of treatment using drugs to kill cancer cells. The drug can be in the form of drinking tablets or injectable infusions.
- Immune therapy or immunotherapy, which is the administration of drugs to boost the immune system and help the body fight cancer cells. Types of drugs used, for example, interferon.
- Target therapy, namely the use of drugs to inhibit the production of proteins that cancer cells use to develop. An example of a type of drug that can be used is a kinase protein inhibitor, such as imatinib.
- Radiotherapy, which is a method of treatment to destroy and stop the growth of cancer cells using high-strength radiation rays.
- Bone marrow transplantation, which is a procedure for replacing damaged bone marrow with healthy bone marrow.
- Sometimes, surgical procedures are also performed to remove enlarged spleen (splenectomy) organs. Enlarged spleen organs can worsen the symptoms of leukemia experienced by sufferers.
Does leukemia cause complications?
Leukemia can cause complications if treatment is not immediately performed. Some of the complications that can occur are:
- The body is susceptible to infection
- Bleeding in organs, such as the brain or lungs
- The risk of the appearance of other types of blood cancer, for example, lymphoma.
And complications can occur due to treatment. Here are some complications from leukemia treatment:
- Hemolytic anemia
- Impaired renal function
- Tumor lysis syndrome
- Cancer cells reappear after the sufferer undergoes treatment
- Graft versus host disease, which is a complication of a bone marrow transplant.
Children with leukemia are also at risk of complications due to treatment. Types of complications that can occur include central nervous system disorders, growth disorders, and cataracts.
Is leukemia curable?
By preventing leukemia there has not been an effective way to prevent leukemia until now. However, several ways can be done to lower your risk of developing leukemia, including:
- Exercise regularly
- Stop smoking habit
- Use personal protective equipment, especially if you work in an environment prone to exposure to chemicals, such as benzene
- Have regular medical check-ups to detect cancer early, especially if you have a history of cancer in the family.