Myocardial Infarction Treatment
Every patient who has had a myocardial infarction must be immediately assisted by trained health workers and have an ACLS (Advanced Cardiac Life Support) training certificate or be brought to the ER for emergency assistance. The first aid that can be given aims to stabilize the patient’s condition. The actions which can be carried out are:
- Provide supplemental oxygen assistance and monitor oxygen saturation with the aid of a pulse oximetry device. Low oxygen levels when oxygen saturation is less than 90%.
- Administration of aspirin by chewing
Patients who have a history of aspirin allergy should still be given aspirin as first aid. Because aspirin is useful for thinning the blood.
- The administration of nitroglycerin is placed under the tongue (sublingually) to treat pain. Nitroglycerin serves to widen the diameter of blood vessels (vasodilation) so that the need for oxygen in muscle tissue is reduced. Nitroglycerin should not be given to patients who have low blood pressure or a weak pulse.
- Give painkillers morphine class. Over-the-counter painkillers are not able to treat chest pain due to a heart attack.
- ECG heart record examination. To know the types of myocardial infarction.
The actions the treatment of myocardial infarction can not be done alone by the layman, must be given by a doctor with close supervision.
After the patient’s condition is stable, blood flow reperfusion can be performed. The main principle of the assistance provided is to restore the blood flow of the blood vessels to the heart as soon as possible so that there is no permanent necrosis or damage to the heart muscle. The intervention that can be done is Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) or Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery.
The prognosis of a myocardial infarction varies from person to person, depending on how much heart muscle tissue is damaged and how quickly treatment is given. In a severe heart attack, the patient can die instantly. In other cases, however, prompt treatment before 6 hours of the first appearance of symptoms can provide a good prognosis.
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