Protein is an important substance for your body to function properly. Proteins are usually found in the blood. If there is a problem with your kidneys, proteins can leak into the urine. Although small amounts are normal, large amounts of protein in the urine can indicate kidney disease. know, What Does Protein In Urine Mean: How to Tests, Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment.
There are several types of drugs that cause protein in the urine, can I experience proteinuria with normal kidney function? Let’s take a closer look.
What does protein in urine mean?
Proteinuria is a condition of the absence of proteins in the urine. This is due to a disorder of renal function that indicates the body is in an unhealthy state.
Ideally, the kidneys will only work by removing excess water and residual substances from the blood into the urine. Larger substances such as proteins will not be filtered in the kidneys. However, when kidney function is impaired, proteinuria is a possible risk.
In patients with proteinuria, urine contains proteins with abnormal levels. Often, this condition signals the occurrence of chronic kidney disease. Proteinuria is an early symptom when a person’s kidney function is no longer maximal.
What is considered a high level of protein in urine?
There is a lot of protein in the urine (more than 1 gram/day). The risk of kidney failure will increase the higher the proteinuria. Individuals with proteinuria can also be in danger of cardiovascular disease.
Low protein in urine meaning
Normal urine can be seen from low protein levels. High levels of protein in urine for a while are not uncommon, especially in younger people after exercise or during illness. Persistently high levels of protein in the urine may be a sign of kidney disease.
Do you experience pain around your lower back and waist or organs near your left kidney cyst? Know, Kidney Cysts in Men and Women: Diagnosis and Therapy
Know proteinuria, urine contains excess protein
Kidney problems often do not show significant symptoms. The sufferer can realize there is a disorder in the kidneys after knowing the results of urine tests during periodic medical check-ups.
Proteinuria is a condition of urine that contains excess protein levels. Supposedly, the proteins that help form these muscles and bones remain in the blood.
Not to mention protein also serves to fight infections, carry fat, and regulate fluid levels in the blood. If the protein “leaves” the body through urine, it’s an unhealthy condition.
Supposedly, small capillary vessels in the kidneys that glomeruli filter residual substances and excess fluid in the blood. When this glomerulus is damaged, the protein cannot be filtered to the maximum and instead passes into the urine.
Risk factors for proteinuria
The causes of proteinuria are very diverse and can vary by person. Some people have higher proteinuria risk factors, such as:
- High blood pressure or hypertension
- Physical activity is too intense
- Consumption of certain drugs that cause proteins to enter the urine
- Systemic infections
- Urinary tract infections
- Immune disorders
- Over 65 years old
- Genetic factors of kidney disorders
- Preeclampsia (high blood pressure during pregnancy)
Usually, a person is said to experience proteinuria when the level of protein production in urine is more than 150 mg per day. These levels can be detected within 24 hours of urine samples being examined in the laboratory. The most common type of protein found in urine specimens of proteinuria sufferers is albumin.
Signs or symptoms of proteinuria
Some signs or symptoms that may indicate a person has proteinuria include:
- Frequency of urination very often
- Easily feel tired
- Nausea and vomiting
- Face, feet, swollen hands
- Loss of appetite
- Muscle cramps at night
- Swollen eyes especially in the morning
Other serious conditions that can cause proteinuria to include:
- Immune disorders such as lupus
- Kidney cancer
- Heart failure
- Protein buildup in your organs (amyloidosis)
- Preeclampsia, which attacks pregnant women
- Inflammation of the kidneys (glomerulonephritis)
- Cardiovascular disease
- Blood cancer called multiple myeloma
- Intravascular hemolysis, a condition Where red blood cells Have Been destroyed
How to test proteins in urine
Make sure you inform your doctor about any medications that are being taken. Because some drugs can affect the level of protein in the urine.
Your doctor may ask you to stop taking certain medications or change the dosage before undergoing an examination.
There are 2 types of urine protein examination, namely random examination and urine test that comes out for 24 hours.
Random urine protein test
On this examination, you will give urine samples at the clinic, medical laboratory, or even accommodate them in advance at home. You will get a sterile sealed container and a wiping cloth to clean the genital area.
Here are the steps that need to be done when conducting urine protein examination random methods:
- Wash your hands thoroughly and open the lid of the urine container.
- Do not touch the inside of the container or the lid with fingers, so that urine samples are not contaminated.
- Clean the genital area with a wiping cloth.
- Then, urinate in the toilet for a few seconds, and stop the urine rate.
- Then, position the container under the genital area, and re-remove the remaining urine.
- Hold urine, and do not let the container touch your limbs.
- Once you’ve finished holding the sample, you can continue urinating.
- Close the container and submit the sample as instructed by the doctor or laboratory officer.
- If you can’t hand it over within 1 hour, store the sample in the refrigerator.
24-hour urine protein test
The doctor will recommend this examination if it finds the presence of protein in the results of a random urine protein test. In this 24-hour test, you will get a large container and some swabs. Do not hold the first urine within the day of examination. However, note the first urination time, as the beginning of the 24-hour urine protein screening period.
In the next 24 hours, place the urine in a container that you have received. Make sure you clean the genital area before urinating. Just like a random test, do not let the container come into contact with the genital area.
During the period of urine shelter, store the sample in the refrigerator. After 24 hours, submit the sample to the doctor or laboratory officer.
What results are obtained from the urine protein examination procedure?
Your doctor will check the protein levels in your urine sample. If the results show high levels of protein, you will be asked to undergo another urine protein test. Your doctor may also recommend physical examinations and laboratory tests.
High levels of protein in urine samples do not necessarily describe the presence of medical disorders that require treatment. Strenuous exercise, diet, stress, pregnancy, and some other factors can make high protein levels temporarily in urine.
However, if after undergoing some health courses, the protein levels in your urine remain high, this condition may indicate:
- Urinary tract infections
- Lupus disease
- High blood pressure
- Pre-eclampsia, as a serious complication during pregnancy, which can be life-threatening to both mother and baby
- Certain types of cancer
Causes of proteins in urine
One of the causes of the onset of proteinuria is impaired renal filtration function. Kidneys that are impaired in function can not filter proteins properly, so proteins from the blood will enter the urine. As a result, a large amount of protein is found in the urine.
How to get protein out of urine
- Weight loss. Losing weight can overcome conditions that interfere with kidney function.
- Dietary changes. If you suffer from kidney disease, diabetes, or high blood pressure, your doctor will recommend certain dietary changes.
- Diabetes medication. You might require medication or insulin treatment to control high blood sugar.
- Blood pressure medication. In case you have diabetes or hypertension, your physician may prescribe drugs to help reduce your blood pressure.
- In glomerulonephritis and renal failure, dialysis is used to regulate high blood pressure and fluids.
How to deal with proteinuria depends on what the trigger is. That is before it is determined its action, it is necessary to find out what causes a person can experience proteinuria. This action should be carried out immediately by obtaining a urine sample. Because if it is postponed, kidney failure may occur.
When checking with a doctor, there are several things to consider before determining a diagnosis, such as:
- Young age
- The amount of protein in the urine
- Blood tests on urine
- Kidney problem test
- blood pressure
After further examination, the doctor will usually prescribe the drug especially for people with diabetes or hypertension. The drug is from ace inhibitors (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) and ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers).
For people who have proteinuria but do not have diabetes or high blood pressure, administering the drug is enough to protect the kidneys from more severe damage.
However, if the chronic problem is a disease such as diabetes and high blood pressure, then it is necessary to take further care of the disease.