When you undergo a complete blood test, white blood cells become one of the examined parts. White blood cells consist of various types that function as the immune system, one of which is eosinophils. what is eos in blood test: causes and how to calculate eos in the body, find out more.
Eosinophils are responsible for fighting parasites and causing allergic reactions. When the number of eosinophils is high or low, there could be an underlying cause. The review below will discuss the sundries of low eosinophils.
What is eos in the blood test?
Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that has an important role in the immune system. Under certain circumstances, eosinophil levels in the body can show a picture of a person’s health.
Eosinophils are produced in the spinal cord. Normal eosinophil levels are 30-350 eosinophil cells per microliter of blood or about 0-6 percent. To find out the levels of eosinophils in the body, you need to do a test to calculate the type of white blood. The results of this test will show the level of each type of white blood cells, including eosinophils.
Leukemia or blood cancer is a type of liquid cancer, with no symptoms of leukemia in women.
What are the functions of eosinophils in the body?
Similar to other types of white blood cells, eosinophils are also part of the immune system that serves to protect the body from disease attacks. However, eosinophils have a special role, namely:
- Fight parasites and relatively large bacteria, for example, worms.
- Helps control the immune response, especially against allergies.
Due to its distinctive role, eosinophil levels in the blood can be a clue to the presence of certain conditions, such as worm infections and allergies.
What does it mean if eosinophil results are low?
Normal eosinophil levels can be zero or none at all. Usually, if you have just had a blood test and find that eosinophils are low, you are not necessarily experiencing any condition.
The journal, published in the US National Library of Medicine, states that patients with low eosinophils fall into several categories:
- Associated with immunity deficiency
- Combination of eosinophil and basophil deficiencies
- Associated with common allergic diseases, especially urticaria and asthma
- Several health conditions cause these white blood cell levels to below. This condition is called eosinopenia.
Generally, low eosinophil levels (eosinopenia) are caused by alcohol abuse or over-taking of steroid drugs and Cushing’s syndrome. Low amounts of eosinophils may also be caused by changes in time.
Under normal and healthy conditions, eosinophils will have the lowest amount in the morning and will reach their highest levels at night. However, if all types of white blood cells are counted low, you may be wary because it can be a marker of problems with the bone marrow.
How to deal with low eosinophils?
Low eosinophil levels, or even none, do not cause adverse effects to the body. Even so, there are various ways you can do to overcome alcohol dependence and Cushing’s syndrome that causes low eosinophils.
Overcoming alcohol dependence
Alcohol consumption can make the number of white blood cells, including eosinophils, low. If your white blood cells are low (leukopenia), the body’s ability to fight infection may also decrease.
Therefore, there are several things you can do to overcome alcohol dependence, such as:
- Limit your alcohol consumption as advised by your doctor
- Record your alcohol consumption in a journal, so your efforts are measurable
- Do not store alcoholic beverages at home
- Tell those closest to you about wanting to stop consuming alcohol, then ask for their support
- Consistent with your cravings to escape alcohol dependence
Most people manage to completely quit alcohol dependence after trying several times. In addition to the ways mentioned above, you can also busy yourself with positive things so as not to be tempted to consume alcohol again.
Overcoming Cushing’s syndrome
Cushing’s syndrome causes high levels of the hormone cortisol in the body and low eosinophils. That’s why this treatment aims to control your cortisol levels.
Some treatment options to overcome this condition, among others:
- Reduces the consumption of corticosteroids. If the cause of Cushing’s syndrome is long-term use of corticosteroid drugs, the doctor may reduce the dose of the drug over some time.
- Operating. If the cause of Cushing’s syndrome is a tumor, the doctor will recommend a total removal operation.
- Radiation therapy. If the surgery is not able to get rid of the tumor thoroughly, the doctor will usually prescribe radiation therapy. Besides, the therapy is also intended for those who do not qualify for surgery.
- Drugs. Drugs are used to control the formation of cortisol when surgery and radiation therapy are unsuccessful.
Recovery of Cushing’s syndrome takes a varied time, depending on the severity and cause of your condition.
What are high eosinophils (eosinophilia)?
Eosinophilia is a condition when eosinophils in the blood are higher than normal limits. This type of white blood cell normally amounts to less than 500 cells per microliter of blood.
You are declared to have eosinophilia if your eosinophil count is more than 500 per microliter of blood. Meanwhile, the number of eosinophils is more than 1,500 per microliter called hypereosinophilia.
More specifically, eosinophilia is distinguished into three levels, namely:
- Lightweight: as much as 500-150 eosinophils per microliter
- Medium: as much as 1,500-5,000 eosinophils per microliter
- Weight: more than 5,000 per microliter
Various causes of high eosinophils
According to AAAAI, high eosinophils occur when the body “recruits” high amounts of eosinophils to one infected point or the bone marrow produces eosinophils in excess. High eosinophils can be caused by several factors, such as:
- Parasitic and fungal diseases
- Allergic reactions
- Conditions of the adrenal glands
- Skin diseases
- Autoimmune diseases
- Endocrine diseases (such as diabetes)
However, there are still many specific conditions and diseases that can be the cause of high eosinophils, such as:
- Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
- Ascariasis (roundworm infection)
- Atopic dermatitis (eczema)
- Crohn’s disease (colitis)
- Allergy medications
- Eosinophilic esophagitis (the appearance of eosinophil infiltration of the esophagus mucosa)
- Eosinophilic leukemia (cancer that causes excessive eosinophil production)
- Allergic rhinitis (inflammation of the nose due to allergic reactions)
- Hodgkin’s disease (blood cancer that appears in the lymphatic system)
- Hypereosinophilic syndrome (condition increases eosinophils to 1,500 cells/microliters of blood for 6 months)
- Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (increasing number of eosinophils for no apparent reason)
- Lymphatic filariasis (a parasitic infection)
- Uterine cancer
- Trichinosis (roundworm infection)
- Ulcerative colitis (colitis)
Of the many causes of eosinophils high above, parasitic diseases and allergic reactions become the most common causes of high eosinophils.
Symptoms of high eosinophils
Just like other components of white blood cells, if the condition is high eosinophil, then the symptoms that appear can come from the disease that causes it. However, some common symptoms of high eosinophils can occur, such as:
- Skin rash
- Diarrhea (usually due to parasitic diseases)
- Nasal congestion of snot (if caused by allergies)
Other eosinophil symptoms that appear can be fever or pain felt in the area of infection, drastic weight loss, and sweating in the middle of the night due to leukemia or other cancers.
The dangers of eosinophils are high
Very high levels of eosinophils can cause you to experience a condition called a hypereosinophilic syndrome. This condition falls into the category of moderate to severe eosinophilia and can cause some conditions that you need to be aware of.
Some of these conditions are distinguished into:
- Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome: eosinophils more than 1,500/mcL of blood with late-stage organ damage.
- Lymphoproliferative hypereosinophilic syndrome: eosinophils more than 1,500/mcL of blood, often associated with rashes.
- Myeloproliferative hypereosinophilic syndrome: eosinophils over 1,500/mcL of blood, symptoms that appear frequently in the form of splenomegaly, heart-related complications, and thrombosis.
- Episodic eosinophilia associated with angioedema (G syndrome): the emerging condition can be cyclic fever, swelling, hives, pruritus, significant eosinophil increase, and increased IgM (one form of antibody that appears to fight infection).
How to lower eosinophils
Just like the symptoms of other components of leukocytosis (monocytosis or lymphocytosis), high eosinophils can be treated by treating diseases or medical conditions that cause them. Some of the high eosinophil treatment options that can be done are as follows:
- If the treatment causes high levels of eosinophils, then the doctor will recommend stopping it immediately.
- Maximize therapy to treat asthma, eczema, and allergies.
- Using anti-parasitic drugs prescribed by the doctor to cope with parasitic infections.
- Undergo radiation therapy, surgery, and chemotherapy to treat leukemia and other cancers.
You and your doctor can discuss the best and most suitable high eosinophil treatment to cure eosinophilic conditions. But before that, usually, the doctor will find out first the cause of high eosinophils on your body.
How to check eosinophil levels
Eosinophil levels in the body can be checked through a blood test To find out the level of eosinophils in the blood, then you need to undergo a complete blood test. The doctor will take the blood from the vein and take it to the laboratory for further examination.
Eosinophil levels cannot be known without undergoing a blood test. If there are symptoms that resemble high eosinophil symptoms, immediately come to the doctor and undergo a complete blood test. This is done so that eosinophil levels can be known with certainty, and preventive efforts can be made to the maximum.