What is Leptomeningeal Disease?, How Dangerous? and How is it Treated?

What is Leptomeningeal Disease?, How Dangerous? and How is it Treated? You may experience frequent recurring headaches or weakness! Know immediately about what diseases are experienced.

Do not wait long to know the disease, but we must move quickly by getting to know the symptoms experienced and take precautions. Well, in this article I would like to share my knowledge of the leptomeningeal disease with you.

What is the leptomeningeal disease?

The leptomeningeal disease is a systemic complication of late-stage cancer caused by metastasis into the leptomeningeal consisting of pia mater, arachnoid, and subarachnoid space.

The prognosis in leptomeningeal is still very bad, usually has a survival rate of 3-6 months. Prognosis with a longer survival rate with Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) above 70, duration, systemic disease control, focal neurological deficit, and protein levels in brain fluid.

Who can get the leptomeningeal disease?

The leptomeningeal disease is an unusual condition that can affect anyone regardless of age. It can be inherited from one or both parents and can affect a boy or girl.

The leptomeningeal disease usually occurs in children between the ages of five and fifteen years but can occur at any age.

Symptoms of the leptomeningeal disease:

  • Dizziness
  • Learn
  • Weakness
  • Behavioral problems
  • Recurrent headaches
  • Bad eating habits

The reason for leptomeningeal metastasis is unknown but several factors have been identified. Genetics seems to play a role because people whose parents already have the condition are more likely to develop it themselves.

Other factors that can cause these cancer cells to migrate to the spinal cord include:

  • Chemotherapy
  • Malignancy
  • Meningitis
  • Radiation therapy
  • Neoplasms

Neoplasmosis is an abnormal growth, but not cancer that may occur in different parts of the body.

Leptomeningeal metastasis can eventually extend to the central nervous system, resulting in permanent damage to the soft palate, larynx, and pharynx. This happens in about ten percent of those who have the disease.

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Of more concern is the fact that these cancer cells can migrate not only to the spinal cord but also to the brain, heart, lungs, and liver.

Treatment for leptomeningeal disease:


Surgery involves surgical removal of leptomeningeal cancer cells from the spinal cord or brain.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy or radiotherapy uses high-energy rays to damage cancer cells in the area of leptomeningeal disease.


Chemotherapy uses drugs to inhibit the growth and spread of cancer cells while physical therapy can be used to help restore mobility to the affected area.

Physical therapy

Although these three treatment options have proven successful in treating this condition, it is important to note that this is a disease that can ultimately be cured, but it can take years after the disease is completely eradicated from the body to be eliminated.

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leptomeningeal disease

How dangerous is the leptomeningeal disease?

The leptomeningeal disease hurts the nervous system and is potentially life-threatening. The disease generally comes from malignant cells that attack surrounding healthy tissues, especially the brain, spinal cord, and meninges, and secrete antineoplastic genes or enzymes that attack healthy tissue.

Attacks on the brain, spinal cord, and other areas of the body usually occur during sleep and are not noticed until death occurs. How dangerous is a leptomeningeal disease?

A recent article in the journal Translational Medicine claimed that the condition is increasing rapidly in the United States and many other countries and claims it could cause as many as one million deaths by 2021.

What causes leptomeningeal disease?

A recent study claimed that it was caused by genetic differences in cancer cells and the immune system, which led researchers to believe that genetic differences and increased exposure to toxins may be major factors.

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Other studies have shown that high-risk patients with a history of leptomeningeal brain metastasis may be particularly susceptible to this condition, but the reality is that almost all patients with a history of high risk are also at risk for it.

Leptomeningeal brain tumors mimic other diseases because they often grow slowly over time, producing little or no symptoms, making diagnosis difficult and sometimes leading to more serious conditions on the way.

When symptoms occur, patients are usually unaware of their difficulties. The most common symptom observed in patients with the leptomeningeal disease is severe and permanent headache, often associated with seizures.

Other symptoms of the leptomeningeal disease include:

  • Nausea
  • Seizures
  • Vomiting
  • Fever
  • Depression
  • Fatigue
  • Constipation
  • Hyperactive
  • Anxiety
  • Speech problems
  • Poor concentration
  • Memory loss
  • Difficulty breathing


Clinical symptoms

leptomeningeal has a variety of symptoms, including cranial nervus deficit, radicular pain, headache, back pain, visual impairment, diplopia, hearing loss, psychiatric disorders, seizures, horse equine syndrome.

Cerebrospinal fluid

Malignant cell findings in LCS cytology provide a gold-standard for leptomeningeal diagnosis. The first lumbar pungi will provide a sensitivity of only 50-60%, the second lumbar function will increase the sensitivity to 80%.

If malignant cells are not visible, analysis of protein levels can be informative. Especially in protein levels above 45 mg/dL seen in 63-90% of patients with leptomeningeal. Another useful parameter for predicting carcinomatous pathology is the high LCS pressure seen in 33-79% of patients with leptomeningeal, and glucose levels decreased in 24-62% of patients.

How to handle leptomeningeal disease?

Leptomeningeal disease, also known as Paget’s disease, is an autoimmune disorder that affects nerves in the head and neck. Paget’s disease is sometimes referred to as the involvement of the central nervous system, but this is not true because it is not affected by the spinal cord; however, it is influenced by the brain, especially the central nervous system.

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The disease is more prevalent in women than in men, with the incidence rate of women being two to three times that of men. Since the disease attacks the brain, symptoms will include:

  • Muscle stiffness
  • Headaches
  • Seizures
  • Numbness or
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Hear
  • View issues
  • Tingling in the arms or legs

How to Treat It? Unfortunately, there is no cure for the leptomeningeal disease, although it can be treated using radiation and chemotherapy, with many patients eventually regaining full mobility.

Symptoms can be treated using a combination of conventional treatments and complementary and alternative medicine treatments. Many patients report success using a combination of conventional treatments and complementary therapies.

Others have had great success with natural herbal remedies and homeopathic treatments to help alleviate the symptoms of Paget’s disease and to avoid relapse.

The incidence rate of Paget’s disease in patients who do not have a history of cancer in their family is 2%, but this still makes this a serious disease with many consequences.

Treatment and recovery rate depends on how advanced the disease is, the extent of its impact on daily life, the age and health of the patient, the nature and extent of the symptoms of the disease, and the extent to which the patient prefers to pursue treatment.

It is important that patients are aware of the complications associated with leptomeningeal disease and that they are aware of the treatment options available to them. Also, patients should be informed of the cancer risks associated with Paget’s disease and be aware of the need to monitor themselves for signs of relapse.


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