White blood cell abnormalities occur when there are too many or too few in our bodies. Normally, the number of white blood cells in the body ranges from 4,000-11,000 cells / MCL. To assess more or less the amount, a blood laboratory examination is required. And know about what is WBC in a blood test? What do you need to pay attention to when the number of WBC is high?
What are white blood cells?
White blood cells are one of the four components of blood produced in the bone marrow. These blood cells play an important role in the immune system and response to inflammation.
Symptoms of white blood disorders vary greatly depending on the type of disease. Some have no symptoms at all. Generally, the symptoms are recurrent infection, fever, weakness, fatigue, and weight loss. There are five types of white blood cells in the body, namely:
- Neutrophils, which are more dominant against bacterial infections
- Lymphocytes, which are more dominant against viral infections
- Monocytes, which are more dominant against fungal infections
- Basophils, which are involved in inflammatory reactions
- Eosinophils, which are more dominant against parasitic infections and are involved in allergic reactions
If one of the five types of red blood cells above is excess or less, it will cause abnormalities of white blood cells. This can be caused by infections, autoimmune disorders, drugs, cancer, even genetic abnormalities from birth.
You should be aware of various abnormalities of white blood cells
And white blood cells, also called leukocytes, are an important part of the immune system. These cells help fight infections by attacking bacteria, viruses, and germs that attack the body.
Abnormalities of white blood cells can be distinguished by the number or function of the cells themselves. Here are common white blood cell disorders and their most common causes:
- Leukocytosis, which is an increase in the number of white blood cells most often caused by bacterial infections, allergies, inflammation, drugs, autoimmune, and cancer.
- Autoimmune neutropenia, which is a condition when the body produces antibodies to attack neutrophils. It occurs in Crohn’s disease and rheumatoid arthritis.
- Severe congenital neutropenia, a condition obtained from birth due to genetic mutations. Sufferers often experience recurrent bacterial infections.
- Cyclic neutropenia, which is a condition that is also caused by genetic mutations, but occurs within a 21-day cycle.
- Chronic granulomatous disease, which is a disorder of the white blood cell type so it does not function properly. These disorders often result in recurrent infections, such as pneumonia and abscesses.
- Leukocyte adhesion deficiency is a rare genetic disorder in which white blood cells cannot move to the place of infection.
There are also some diseases that most often occur due to blood disorders that affect white blood cells, such as:
Lymphoma is a type of blood cancer that occurs in the lymphatic system in the body. The cause is white blood cells that multiply, get out of control, and turn malignant.
Common symptoms of such complaints are enlarged lymph nodes, usually starting in the neck or armpits, coughing, shortness of breath, fever, limp body, and weight loss.
Leukemia is a type of blood cancer. This is a condition when white blood cells become malignant and multiply in the bone marrow. Leukemia can occur in both children and adults.
The symptoms of the sufferer are anemia. This is because the production of red blood cells is suppressed by malignant white blood cells, bleeding gums, skin often arises bruises, weight loss, and appetite
Myelodysplastic syndrome is a blood cancer that occurs in the bone marrow. In this condition, the bone marrow produces immature blood cells called blasts.
These young cells increase in number, thus suppressing the production of mature and healthy cells. Mds symptoms are similar to leukemia, namely anemia, bleeding gums, limp body, bruising, and weight loss.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy that occurs in one part of white blood cells, namely plasma cells. The disease is often also referred to as plasma cell leukemia.
Plasma cells multiply and secrete proteins that can damage body organs, such as kidneys, bones, and nerves. Symptoms are bone pain, fractures, bleeding of the skin and gums, anemia, limp body, to kidney failure.
The above white blood cell abnormalities often show symptoms that are not typical and difficult to distinguish from each other.
What’s called the WBC?
WBC is a test that measures the number of white blood cells in your body. These tests are often included with a complete blood count (CBC). The term white blood cell count is also used more commonly to refer to the number of white blood cells in the body.
There are several types of white blood cells, and your blood usually contains a percentage for each type here I will explain. However, sometimes the number of white blood cells can drop or rise from a healthy range. Therefore Calculate lekosit / white blood cell count (WBC).
Purpose of leukocyte calculation
Having a higher or lower number of leukocytes than usual can indicate an underlying condition.
Leukocytosis is a condition in which white blood cells (leukocytes) are more than the upper limit of normal values due to various causes. Leukocytes or white blood cells are part of the immune system that serves to protect against infection or disease.
White blood cells are those made by hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow. There are 5 types of white blood cells whose specific functions are different, namely neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils.
And white blood cell count can detect hidden infections in your body and alert doctors to undiagnosed medical conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, immune deficiencies, and your blood disorders.
The test also helps doctors monitor the effectiveness of chemotherapy or radiation treatment in cancer patients.
Is Your Leukocyte High? And It’s The Cause and Symptoms
Number of Normal Leukocytes
Newborns generally have a leukocyte count between 9,000–30,000 per mcL of blood. The range of the number of normal leukocytes will change with age to only 5,000–10,000 MCL in adulthood.
In adults, the number of white blood cells or leukocytes is said to be high when it reaches more than 11,000 mcL.
Various Causes of High Leukocyte Count
There are 5 types of white blood cells or leukocytes, namely neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and basophils. When calculated by percentage, leukocytes are called normal if they consist of 40–60% neutrophils, 20–40% lymphocytes, 2–8% monocytes, 1–4% eosinophils, and 0.5%–1% basophils. However, sometimes the number of such leukocytes can increase.
The following are some of the causes of high leukocytes Dependent on the Sort of leukocytes:
Neutrophils are the most numerous type of white blood cells in the body. Neutrophils can move freely through the walls of blood vessels and into the body’s tissues to fight all infection-causing bacteria, viruses, and parasites.
The number of neutrophils may increase if you experience some of the following conditions:
- Bacterial, viral, or fungal infections
- Injuries or injuries, such as postoperative recovery
- Inflammation, e.g. namely in inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, or rheumatic fever.
Blood cancer or leukemia
Pregnancy, especially when the gestational age has reached the last trimester or before childbirth
Stress or excessive exercise
Their types of leukocytes there are 2 kinds, namely B cell lymphocytes that are tasked to produce antibodies and T lymphocytes that play a role in recognizing and capturing foreign organisms or objects in the body.
A high number of leukocytes can lead to an increase in the number of lymphocytes. And even these conditions can be caused by several things, such as:
- These viral infections are such as measles, smallpox, herpes, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and hantavirus.
- Cancers, such as multiple myeloma
- Glandular fever or mononucleosis
- Hepatitis due to viral or bacterial infections
Among other types of leukocytes, monocytes are white blood cells of the largest size. This type of leukocyte plays a role in capturing and fighting bacteria, parasites, and fungi that enter the body.
The increasing number of monocytes can be caused by several things, namely:
- Viral infections, such as measles, and mononucleosis
- Bacterial infections, such as tuberculosis, and syphilis
- Parasitic infections, such as worms and malaria
- Hodgkin’s disease
- And chronic inflammation, such as lupus, vasculitis, and rheumatoid arthritis
Eosinophils are a type of leukocytes or white blood cells that serve to destroy viruses, bacteria, and parasites, as well as trigger the appearance of inflammatory responses, such as allergic reactions, eczema, and asthma.
High eosinophil count can be caused by the following conditions:
- Helminth infection
- Side Effects of Drugs
- Hypereosyphilia syndrome
- Celiac disease
- Allergic reactions, such as eczema or asthma
Basophils are white blood cells that play a role in fighting worm parasites, stopping blood clotting, and producing allergic reactions. High basophil count can be caused by:
- Myeloproliferative disease, which is a disease of the bone marrow
- Chronic inflammation, such as ulcerative colitis and rheumatoid arthritis
Recovery from spleen removal surgery or splenectomy
So the conclusion is that the number of white blood cells or leukocytes can increase when a person’s body experiences the following conditions:
- The increased production of white blood cells functions to fight infection
- A disorder in the immune system that causes the production of white blood cells to increase
- Reactions to side effects of drugs that increase white blood cell production
- Bone marrow disease that causes white blood cell production to rise abnormally
- Symptoms of High Leukocytes or Leukocytosis
High leukocytes or leukocytosis do not always cause symptoms, because it depends on everything. However, people with high leukocytes may experience the following signs and symptoms:
- Bleeding or bruising
- The body feels easily tired and limp
- Dizziness or headache
- Arms, legs, or stomach aches or tingling
- Difficulty breathing, concentrating, or impaired vision
- Weight loss for no reason
- No appetite
- Swelling of the lymph nodes
Because it can be caused by many diseases, high leukocytes are conditions that need to be addressed immediately. If experience any of the symptoms above, you should immediately consult a doctor.
To determine the diagnosis of high leukocytes and determine the cause, the doctor will perform a physical examination and supporting examination in the form of a complete blood test. Once the cause of high leukocytes is known, the doctor will provide appropriate treatment to address the cause.
What to note when the WBC count is high?
So high leukocytes do not require any treatment. But if the cause of leukocytosis is a serious disease such as leukemia or other cancers, then there are ways to lower leukocytes that you can do.
Before continuing I also have information about What is TSH in the Blood Test? And What Is The Difference Between High Levels and Low levels of TSH? to make it easier for you to perform the examination using blood samples taken from the veins in the arm to measure the concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormones in the blood.
When is a person convicted of having high leukocytes?
A person can only be said to have a high leukocyte through the results of a blood test in the laboratory. According to the University of Rochester Medical Center (UMRC), the standard of normal leukocytes in a person’s body varies, namely:
- Newborns: 9,000-30,000 leukocytes per microliter of blood
- Children under 2 years: 6,200-17,000 leukocytes per microliter of blood
- Children over 2 years to adult: 5,000-10,000 leukocytes per microliter of blood.
Some laboratories use milliliter units of blood or mm3. However, the unit is the same. If you are a pregnant woman, do not be surprised if you are convicted of having a high leukocyte because the number of white blood cells in pregnant women will indeed increase with the age of the pregnancy.
In the last trimester of pregnancy, the number of leukocytes you are still said to be normal when in the range of 5,800-13,200 microliters of blood. After childbirth, your leukocytes will also still be high or about 12,700 per microliter of blood for some time.
High leukocyte counts are usually found when your doctor suspects the presence of certain diseases in the body so he asks you to do a blood test.
Always consult your blood test results with your doctor to see if there is indeed a serious disease that causes an increase in the number of white blood cells in your body. Knowing the cause as early as possible can get you the right treatment right away.
The doctor may ask you to do another test as a follow-up. However, you can also be recommended to do several ways of lowering leukocytes, ranging from stress therapy to chemotherapy.
How to lower leukocytes?
How to lower leukocytes depends on the disease or other factors that cause the rise in white blood cell levels itself. Some medical methods that you can do, among others:
- Take a break or take therapy to relieve anxiety and stress if necessary.
- Take antibiotics if leukocytosis is caused by a bacterial infection.
- Relieves inflammation if that’s what causes high leukocytes.
- Take antihistamines if there is an allergic reaction.
- Do chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or stem cell transplantation if you have leukemia.
- Replace the drugs if the previous treatment is unsuccessful or provokes an unwanted reaction.
Tips to prevent high leukocytes
You can prevent high leukocytes by minimizing the occurrence of the cause of the increase in the number of white blood cells itself. Some things you can do to keep the number of leukocytes from rising are:
- Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, one of which is by washing your hands with soap to prevent infection in the body.
- If you have allergies, stay away from these allergens.
- Quitting smoking because of its content in cigarettes can also result in high leukocytes as well as increase your risk of developing cancer.
- Do not forget to take medication according to your doctor’s prescription if you are suffering from certain pain.
- Stay away from stress and if necessary seek help (e.g. follow therapy) when you experience anxiety or excessive stress.